A bowdlerized text is a text that has been adapted to be more 'appropriate' for audiences the author believes would benefit from this censorship. Often, elements considered to be sexual, nonnormative, or irreligious are removed from the original text.

digital redlining

Chris Gilliard and Hugh Culik use the term "digital redlining" to describe a limitation of access to digital tools or information that disproportionately affects minoritized people. They stress that "digital redlining arises out of policies that regulate and track students' engagement with information technology." (Gilliard and Culik)

Digital Rights Management (DRM)

DRM is an abbreviation of"digital rights management." DRM technologies "limit what a reader can or cannot do with a given work" (For more detailed information, see "Considering Publishers" in McGuire et al., "An Open Approach to Scholarly Reading and Knowledge Management.")

disposable assignments

The term "disposable assignments" was coined by David Wiley

fair use

In the United States, fair use assessments are always made on a case-by-case basis by weighing the following four factors:
1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.


"FOIA" is an abbreviation for the Freedom of Information Act. In some states, public institutions are required by the state to reveal the details of their commercial contracts when asked.


The Higher Education Funding Council (HEFC) and Research Councils UK (RCUK) have combined as of April 2018 - UK Research and Innovation.


A term used to describe a tool that can work within or in concert with another tool.


"Neurotechnology" is a term that Benn Williamson defines as "a broad field of brain-centred research and development dedicated to opening up the brain to computational analysis, modification, simulation and control. It includes advanced neural imaging systems for real-time brain monitoring; brain- inspired ‘neural networks’ and bio-mimetic ‘cognitive computing’; synthetic neurobiology; brain-computer interfaces and wearable neuroheadsets; brain simulation platforms; neurostimulator systems; personal neuroinformatics; and other forms of brain-machine integration" (Williamson 66, citing the Nuffield Council on Bioethics [2013]; Rose et al. [2016]; Yuste et al. [2017]).


Abbreviation for "open access"


OEP stands for "OER-Enabled Pedagogy." Coined by David Wiley, it refers to educational practices that are impossible without the permissions granted by open licenses"--that is, the explicit permission to remix, revise, reuse, retain, and redistribute a particular learning resource.


Open Educational Resources are essays, infographics, movies, schematics, simulations, and other forms of media that are freely shared for educational purposes. OER creators provide explicit permission to others to remix, revise, reuse, retain, and redistribute a particular learning resource.


Research Councils UK is now UK Research & Innovation.

reading formations

"Reading formations" are socially-situated practices for engaging with and interpreting texts. Or, as Andrew Bennett expands on the term: "Meaning is a transitive phenomenon. It is not a thing that texts can have, but is something that can only be produced, and always differently, within the reading formations that regulate the encounters between texts and reader" (Bennett 8).

scholarly community

I use the term 'scholarly community' to describe people who are active participants in scholarly discussions in a range of formal or informal contexts. This includes--but is not limited to--researchers, instructors, and students affiliated with a higher education institution.


SoTL is the acronym for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, a field of inquiry that explores instruction and assessment strategies using evidence-based research methods. Osman and Hornby describe SoTL as a set of practices that "[provide] an opportunity to re-examine and in some instances confirm one’s epistemological and philosophical orientation as teachers as well as recognise the political nature of our work" (Osman and Hornby 7).

V21 Collective

A group of scholars whose motto is "Victorian Studies for the 21st Century."


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