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Lição 10

Learning Objectives – Objetivos da Lição

Lição 10 presents:

  • the preposition ‘por’ and its contractions with definite articles,
  • interrogatives,
  • possessive pronouns,
  • idiomatic uses of ‘ter’ and ‘haver’,
  • the verbs ‘trazer’ and ‘saber,’ and
  • relevant vocabulary.

After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:

  • recognize and produce sentences with the preposition por and its contractions.
  • use possessive pronouns to indicate possession.
  • employ idiomatic usages of the verbs ter and haver.

Grammar – Gramática

Contractions of ‘por’ – Contrações de por

The preposition por combines with the definite articles as follows:

por + o = pelo [for the, by the, through the]
por + os = pelos [for the, by the, through the]
por + a = pela [for the, by the, through the]
por + as = pelas [for the, by the, through the]
10.1 Practice – Prática

10.1 A. 

Interrogatives – Interrogativos

Quem? [Who? / Whom?]
De quem? [Whose?]
Qual? Quais? [What? / Which?]

Quem is invariable in form, and refers only to persons.

Quem viu o meu casaco? [Who has seen my coat?]
Quem são aqueles rapazes? [Who are those young men?]

De quem is always followed by some form of the verb ser when it indicates possession:

De quem é aquela bicicleta? [Whose bicycle is that?]
De quem são aqueles sapatos? [Whose shoes are those?]

Qual/Quais can be either a pronoun or an adjective and must agree in number with its referent:

Quais são os meses do verão? [What are the summer months?]
Qual dos candidatos você prefere? [Which candidate do you prefer?]
Quais camisas ele perdeu? [Which shirts did he lose?]

Possessive pronouns – Os pronomes possessivos

The possessive pronoun in Portuguese is formed by using the definite article plus the possessive adjective.

o meu, os meus [mine] o nosso, os nossos [ours]
a minha, as minhas [mine] a nossa, as nossas [ours]
o seu, os seus [yours, his, hers, its] o seu, os seus [yours, theirs]
a sua, as suas [yours, his, hers, its] a sua, as suas [yours, theirs]
Você tem os seus amigos e eu tenho os meus. [You have your friends and I have mine.]
Eu telefono para minha irmã e Ricardo telefona para a sua. [I call my sister and Ricardo calls his.]

Notice that to form the possessive pronoun, one merely drops the noun from the phrase.

Because the third person singular and plural forms are the same and may have multiple referents, the following forms are employed to avoid confusion:

o dele, a dele, os dele, as dele [his] o deles, a deles, os deles, as deles [theirs]
o dela, a dela, os dela, as dela [hers] o delas, a delas, os delas, as delas   [theirs (group of females)
Faço os meus trabalhos e a Lúcia faz os dela. [I do my assignments and Lucia does hers.]
A Cristina traz a bicicleta dela e o Roberto traz a dele. [Cristina brings her bike and Roberto brings his.]
Eu lavei o meu carro hoje, Jorge. Quando você vai lavar o seu? [I washed my car today, Jorge. When are you going to wash yours?

* The possessive phrase de você is not used in standard speech.

After the verb ser, the definite article is omitted from the possessive:

De quem é o violão? [Whose guitar is it?]
 – É meu. [ – It’s mine.]
De quem são essas meias? [Whose socks are those?]
  – Essas meias são dele. [ – Those socks are his.]
10.2 Practice – Prática

10.2 A.

10.2 B. 

10.2 C. Repeat each sentence, omitting the noun in the second clause and substituting the possessive pronoun. Use the most explicit form of the pronoun.

Eu entrego a minha prova e João entrega a prova dele.
Eu entrego a minha prova e João entrega a dele.

1. Se você não tem mais café, tome o meu café.
2. A minha camisa é branca, mas a camisa de João é azul.
3. Os nossos exercícios estão na mesa, mas não sei onde estão os exercícios dos rapazes.
4. Eu fiz a minha parte e Marisa fez a parte dela.
5. O nosso toca-discos não funciona, mas o toca-discos de Marta funciona.

Idiomatic use of ter for haver – Uso idiomático de ter em vez de haver

As you have already learned, means ‘there is’ or ‘there are’. The third person singular forms of the verb haver in the other tenses will project the impersonal expression into those time periods:

 oito pessoas nesta sala. [There are eight people in this room.]
Havia só uma pessoa quando cheguei. [There was only one person when I arrived.]

In Brazil in popular speech the third person singular forms of ter are regularly used instead of those of haver:

Tem oito pessoas nesta sala. [There are eight people in this room.]
Tinha só uma pessoa quando eu cheguei. [There was only one person when I arrived.]

The verb trazer – O verbo trazer

The verb trazer which means “to bring” is irregular in the following already studied verb tenses.

TRAZER [to bring] in the Present Indicative
Eu trago Nós trazemos
Você, ele, ela traz Vocês, eles, elas trazem
TRAZER [to bring] in the Preterite Perfect
Eu trouxe Nós trouxemos
Você, ele, ela trouxe Vocês, eles, elas trouxeram

The verb saber – O verbo saber

The verb saber is irregular in the following already studied verb tenses.

SABER [to know] in the Present Indicative
Eu sei Nós sabemos
Você, ele, ela sabe Vocês, eles, elas sabem
SABER [to learn, hear, find out] in the Preterite Perfect
Eu soube Nós soubemos
Você, ele, ela soube Vocês, eles, elas souberam

The preterite of saber is translated as “learned, heard or found out.”

Eu soube ontem que eles iam chegar hoje. [I found out yesterday that they were going to arrive today.]
Nós soubemos do acidente só hoje de manhã. [We heard about the accident just this morning.]

Vocabulary – Vocabulário

Verbos – Verbos

Expressions – Expressões

10.3 Practice – Prática

10.3 A.

10.3 B.

10.3 C. Translate:

1. There were two mattresses on the floor.
2. My dad used to smoke.
3. They left right after the meeting.
4. My kitchen is small but theirs is huge.
5. Last weekend we climbed Pão de Açúcar.
6. Whose T-shirt is that?
7. Who brought the cups?
8. What is the capital of Brazil?
9. Armando found out about the rock concert last night.
10. No way! You’re not going to leave without me.



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Lição 10 by Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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