Main Body

Lição 23

Lesson Objectives- Objetivos da Lição

Lição 23 presents:

  • the formation and usage of the subjunctive in adverbial clauses, 
  • how to express conjecture and
  • new vocabulary.

After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:

  • use the subjunctive in adverbial clauses.
  • express conjecture.

 


Grammar – Gramática

The subjunctive in adverbial clauses –  O subjuntivo em orações adverbiais

The following adverbial conjunctions are always followed by the present or imperfect subjunctive. When the verb of the independent clause is in a present or future tense of the indicative, or in the imperative mode, the verb of the dependent clause will be in the present subjunctive; and when the verb of the independent clause is in a past or conditional tense of the indicative, the verb of the dependent clause will be in the imperfect subjunctive.

Conjunções de condição

[Conjunctions of condition]

a menos que/ a não ser que  [unless]
caso [in case]
contanto que  [provided that, as long as]
Ele disse que iria contanto que não tivesse que dirigir. [He said that he would go provided that he didn’t have to drive.]
Caso eu veja a Marta, darei o recado a ela. [In case I see Martha, I will give her the message.]
Vamos partir no dia 15 a não ser que surja algum imprevisto. [We’ll leave on the 15th unless something unexpected happens.]
A menos que fosse totalmente impossível, sempre contribuíamos para as despesas da casa da praia. [Unless it was truly impossible, we’d always help with the expenses of the beach house.]
Conjunções de concessão  [Conjunctions of concession]
ainda que  [although, even though, even if, even]
embora [although, even though, even if, even]
mesmo que [although, even though, even if, even]
apesar de que [in spite of, even though]
Ainda que você tenha uma boa desculpa, vai ser muito difícil sair dessa. [Even though you may have a good excuse, it’ll be very difficult to talk your way out of this.]
Embora se esforçasse tanto, ele nunca tinha êxito nos negócios. [Although he tried very hard, he never had any success in business.]
Eu não sairia com você mesmo que você me pedisse de joelhos. [I wouldn’t go out with you even if you begged me.]
Apesar de que o pedido seja razoável, será negado. [Even though the request is reasonable, it will be denied.]
23.1 Practice- Prática

23.1 A. 

23.1 B.

23.1 C. 

Use of the future and conditional tenses to express probability or conjecture – Uso do futuro e do condicional para expressar probabilidade ou conjetura

The future tense is used to express probability or conjecture in present time. It is often necessary to paraphrase the sentence or question when translating into English, using expressions such as: I wonder…; Do you suppose…; Probably; etc.

Que horas serão? [I wonder what time it is?]
Onde estará o Zé? [Where do you suppose Zé is?]
Ele diz que vai nos pagar. Será? [He says he’s going to pay us back. Can it be?]
Luísa já estará em casa a estas horas. [Luísa is probably at home by this time.]

Probability or conjecture in a question is often expressed by beginning the sentence with será que. Note that the verb following the conjecture may be in any indicative tense except the simple future:

Será que o Marcos vai ser reprovado em química? [Do you suppose Marcos will fail chemistry?]
Será que o avião já chegou? [I wonder if the plane has landed?]
Será que eles sabiam as respostas? [Do you suppose they knew the answers?]

The conditional tense is used to express probability or conjecture in a past context.

Que horas seriam quando ela chegou? [What time do you suppose it was when she arrived?]
Quem seria que me telefonou?  [I wonder who could have called me?]
23.2 Practice – Prática

23.2 A. Escreva uma conjetura para cada afirmativa, seguindo o exemplo:

Luís fará compras em Belém amanhã.
Será que Luís vai fazer compras em Belém amanhã?

1. Todos ficarão zangados conosco.
2. Paulo tem um montão de problemas.
3. Sílvia queria fazer parte do time.
4. Eles já terminaram os trabalhos.
5. Ninguém prestará atenção a este detalhe.

Vocabulary – Vocabulário

Verbs – Verbos

Expressions – Expressões

23.3 Practice- Prática

23.3 A. Escreva em português:

1. In case Miguel isn’t here at 6:30, we will go with Pedro.
2. My cousin said she would call the travel agent unless you decided to do it.
3. I wonder what time it is?
4. Do you suppose that they had a fight?
5. Someone called about 20 minutes ago, but when I answered, they hung up. Could it have been your boyfriend?