Main Body

Lição 27

Lesson Objectives- Objetivos da Lição

Lição 27 presents:

  • the formation and usage of the present perfect tense,
  • the formation and usage of the present perfect subjunctive,
  • the use of cada vez mais/menos and
  • new vocabulary.

After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:

  • use the present perfect tense in both indicative and subjunctive modes.

Grammar – Gramática

The present perfect – O presente composto do indicativo

The present perfect tense in Portuguese is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb ter plus the past participle of the main verb. This tense has a special usage in Portuguese and is not the equivalent of the present perfect tense in English and in other languages.

Expressions of time such as recentementeultimamenteestes dias, etc. often signal the use of this tense.

The idea embodied in the use of the present perfect tense in Portuguese is that of a repeated action begun in the indefinite past, continuing in the present, and likely to occur in the near future.

O César tem estado doente estes dias. [César has been sick these last few days.]
Temos lido muito a respeito desse político ultimamente. [We have been reading a lot about that politician lately.]
O que é que vocês têm feito desde que voltaram das férias? [What have you been doing since you got back from vacation?]

Note that the time reference of the above sentences can be contrasted with the following examples in which the action of the verb was completed in a past time and therefore must use a preterite tense in Portuguese.

Você já viu esse filme? [Have you already seen that film?]
A Célia já esteve no Brasil várias vezes. [Célia has been to Brazil several times.]
27.1 Practice- Prática

27.1 A.

The present perfect subjunctive – O presente composto do subjuntivo

The present perfect subjunctive is used in dependent subjunctive clauses when the verb in the main clause is present but refers to a past action. When the verb in the main clause is present and refers to a present or future action, the simple present subjunctive is used.

The present perfect subjunctive is formed by using the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb plus the past participle of the main verb:

Espero que você goste de festas. [I hope you like parties.]
Espero que você tenha gostado da festa ontem à noite. [I hope you liked the party last night.]
A menos que você pague suas contas em dia, você vai ter dificuldade para conseguir crédito. [Unless you pay your bills on time, your credit rating will suffer.]
A menos que você já tenha pago a prestação, a loja vai fechar sua conta. [Unless you’ve already sent your monthly payment, the store is going to cancel your account.]
Nós duvidamos que ele seja capaz de dizer algo assim. [We doubt that he is capable of saying something like that.]
Nós duvidamos que ele tenha dito algo assim. [We doubt that he said something like that.]
27.2 Pratice – Prática

27.2 A. 

27.2 B.

The intensifiers cada vez mais/menos – Os intensificadores cada vez mais/menos

Cada vez mais and cada vez menos are intensifiers which can be used at the end of a sentence, or before a noun, adjective or adverb.

Você não acha que o Paulo está se isolando cada vez mais? [Don’t you think that Paulo is isolating himself more and more?]
Ultimamente ele tem nos dado cada vez menos problemas. [Lately he has given us fewer and fewer problems.]
Deixei o curso porque as lições estavam ficando cada vez mais difíceis. [I dropped the course because the lessons were getting harder and harder.]
As listas telefônicas ficam cada vez maiores. [The telephone books get bigger and bigger.]

Classified Ads – Anúncios

The following are typical examples of classified ads:

PRECISA-SE [HELP WANTED]
Professor particular alemão/inglês, dez horas semanais. Deve ter ótimas referências e bastante experiência. Caixa Postal 121. [German/English Tutor, ten hours weekly. Should have excellent references and sufficient experience. Post Office Box 121.]
VENDE-SE [FOR  SALE]
Fusca 85, ótimas condições, baixa quilometragem, sem batidas, pneus quase novos, rádio. Aceita-se melhor oferta. Telefone: 275-1890. [1985 VW Beetle, excellent condition, low mileage, no dents, almost new tires, radio. Best offer. Telephone: 275-1890
ALUGA-SE [FOR RENT]
Apartamento no centro, perto do metrô, dois quartos amplos, sala de estar, copa-cozinha, banheiro, dependência de empregada. Tratar no local. [Apartment in the city center, close to subway, two spacious bedrooms, living room, eating area, bathroom, service quarters. Inquire at location.] 
27.3 Pratice- Prática

27.3 A. Escreva um anúncio para o emprego que você gostaria de encontrar.

27.3 B. Escreva um anúncio oferecendo uma gratificação para quem encontrar o seu gato/cachorro/relógio.

Vocabulary – Vocabulário

Verbs – Verbos

Expressions – Expressões

27.4 Practice- Prática

27.4 A. Traduza:

1. Brazilian movies are getting better all the time. However, they are getting more expensive to make.
2. We have been working very hard since the new boss arrived.
3. I am not sure I want to apply for a part-time job.
4. Dona Dalva is afraid that her grandchildren had an accident on the way to the beach.
5. Don’t you think that he has been very nervous lately?
6. It’s too bad we haven’t been able to go out these last few weeks.

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Lição 27 by Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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