Irregular verb dovere
The irregular verb dovere may be translated in various ways.
When it is used as a transitive verb, it means “to owe.”
When used as a modal auxiliary, it means “to have to,” “to be (supposed) to,” “must,” “should,” or “ought.”
|devo (or debbo)||dobbiamo|
|deve||devono (or debbono)|
Stem for future and conditional: dovr-:
|debba (or deva)||dobbiamo|
|debba (or deva)||dobbiate|
|debba (or deva)||debbano (or devano)|
Alongside the regularly formed past absolute, there are alternate forms in the first and third persons singular and the third person plural:
|Past absolute (passato remoto)|
|dové (dovette)||doverono (dovettero)|
Some of the various meanings of dovere in different contexts and tenses are illustrated in the following sentences.
Mi deve (mi doveva) dieci dollari. — He owes me (owed me) ten dollars.
Deve cantare. — He is supposed to (is expected to / has to / must) sing.
Doveva cantare. — He was supposed to (was expected to / had to) sing.
L’ha dovuto fare. (Ha dovuto farlo.) — He had (has had) to do it.
Dovrà partire. — She will have to leave.
Non è venuto; ha dovuto essere ammalato. — He did not come; he must have been (probably was) ill.
Dovrebbe pagarmi. — He ought to (should) pay me.
Avrebbe dovuto farlo. — He ought to (should) have done it.
NOTE: The conditional of dovere always means “ought to” or “should,” and the conditional perfect, “ought to have” or “should have.” Each of these tenses typically implies the idea of moral obligation.
to perceive, to notice
ustom, usage; habit; (pl.) morals; costume
|d’intorno (= intorno)
misunderstood, misinterpreted (past part., fraintendere)
to undertake, to begin
meant, intended (past part., intendere)
sensible (i.e., that which can be perceived by the senses)
foolishness, stupidity (cf. stolto)