Lab 15: Introduction to Joints and Bones of the Upper Extremity

Learning Objectives:

  • Name the bones of the upper extremity and describe their functions.
  • Identify key landmarks on the bones of the upper extremity and explain their function or purpose.
  • Identify and describe the joints of the upper extremity, the bones that make up those joints, the movements possible at those joints, and any key accessory structures that are part of the joint (e.g., bursae or ligaments).
  • Explain structure governs function examples from the bones and articulations of the upper extremity (i.e., how is the degree of joint movement determined by the structure of the joint).

Terms to Know

  • Clavicle
    • Acromial end
    • Sternal end
    • Conoid tubercle
    • Shaft
  • Scapula
    • Glenoid fossa
    • Infraglenoid tubercle
    • Supraglenoid tubercle
    • Coracoid process
    • Acromion process
    • Scapular spine
    • Medial border
    • Lateral border
    • Superior border
    • Inferior angle
    • Superior angle
    • Subscapular fossa
    • Supraspinous fossa
    • Infraspinous fossa
    • Suprascapular notch
  • Humerus
    • Head
    • Greater tubercle
    • Lesser tubercle
    • Deltoid tuberosity
    • Intertubercular sulcus
    • Radial groove
    • Anatomical neck
    • Surgical neck
    • Medial epicondyle
    • Lateral epicondyle
    • Lateral supracondylar ridge
    • Medial supracondylar ridge
    • Capitulum
    • Trochlea
    • Radial fossa
    • Coronoid fossa
    • Olecranon fossa
    • Shaft
 

  • Ulna
    • Trochlear notch
    • Olecranon process
    • Coronoid process
    • Radial notch
    • Head
    • Shaft
    • Styloid process
    • Interosseous border (crest)
  • Radius
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Shaft
    • Radial tuberosity
    • Styloid process
    • Ulnar notch
    • Interosseous border (crest)
  • Carpals
    • Scaphoid
    • Lunate
    • Triquetrum
    • Pisiform
    • Trapezium
    • Trapezoid
    • Capitate
    • Hamate
  • Metacarpals
  • Phalanges
    • Proximal
    • Middle
    • Distal
    • Pollex


Introduction

In this lab, you will learn about the bones of the upper extremity. During this unit, we will discuss the bones, joints, muscles, nerves, and vasculature that make up our shoulder region, arm, forearm, and hand. Be sure to check the course Canvas page, as we will be providing you with a bony landmark chart and muscle charts (muscle chart 1 & muscle chart 2) to help clarify what material you will be responsible for and help you learn the material.

This lab focuses on the bones of the upper extremities, including the scapula, humerus, clavicle, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. You will be asked to identify specific landmarks on these bones. You are encouraged to look at several different bones of the same type (i.e., several different humeri), as sometimes these features are more or less prominent due to anatomical variation. Finally, you should identify if individual bones come from the right or left upper extremity based on the landmarks. Students are encouraged to reference the muscle and bone landmark charts to better understand the origin and insertion landmarks on the bones. You are responsible for knowing the bony landmark origins and insertions for many of the muscles of the upper extremity, as indicated on the muscle charts linked above.

 


Lab Activity 1:  Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus 

Observe the scapula, clavicle, and humerus. Use the bony markings table to learn the function and/or structure that runs near/attaches/articulates with each bony marking. You will be responsible for the information in that table, and these markings will be reviewed again as we discuss the rest of the upper extremity.

You should use the iPads to help you identify the landmarks listed in the Terms to Know. You will want to highlight one of the selected bones, then use the isolate feature (it looks like a femur with multiple colors). When you isolate the bones, you will see all of the bony landmarks and markings as listed in the charts and the terms to know.

You should identify if these three bones come from the right or left side of the body. By knowing if a particular landmark is medial or lateral, anterior or posterior, you should quickly determine the side of the body the bone came from. For example, the medial epicondyle is larger than the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and the large olecranon fossa is posterior. By knowing this, you should determine if you are looking at a right or left humerus.

  • Observe the following features of the clavicle:
    • Sternal end
    • Acromial end
    • Conoid tubercle
    • Shaft
  • Observe the following features of the scapula:
    • Glenoid fossa
    • Infraglenoid tubercle
    • Supraglenoid tubercle
    • Coracoid process
    • Acromion process
    • Scapular spine
    • Medial border
    • Lateral border
    • Superior border
    • Inferior angle
    • Superior angle
    • Subscapular fossa
    • Supraspinous fossa
    • Infraspinous fossa
    • Suprascapular notch
  • Observe the following features of the humerus:
    • Head
    • Greater tubercle
    • Lesser tubercle
    • Deltoid tuberosity
    • Intertubercular sulcus
    • Radial groove
    • Anatomical neck
    • Surgical neck
    • Medial epicondyle
    • Lateral epicondyle
    • Lateral supracondylar ridge
    • Medial supracondylar ridge
    • Capitulum
    • Trochlea
    • Radial fossa
    • Coronoid fossa
    • Olecranon fossa
    • Shaft

 


Lab Activity 2:  Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges 

Observe the ulna, radius, carpals, and phalanges specimens.  Use the Visible Body Atlas to help you identify the bones and bony markings. Use the bony markings table to learn the function and/or structure that runs near/attaches/articulates with each bony marking. You will be responsible for the information in that table, and these markings will be reviewed again as we discuss the rest of the upper extremity.

  • Observe the following features of the ulna:
    • Trochlear notch
    • Olecranon process
    • Coronoid process
    • Radial notch
    • Head
    • Shaft
    • Styloid process
    • Interosseous border (crest)
  • Observe the following features of the radius:
    • Head
    • Neck
    • Shaft
    • Radial tuberosity
    • Styloid process
    • Ulnar notch
    • Interosseous border (crest)
  • Observe the bones of the wrist and hand:
    •  Carpals
      • Scaphoid
      • Lunate
      • Triquetrum
      • Pisiform
      • Trapezium
      • Trapezoid
      • Capitate
      • Hamate
    • Metacarpals
    • Phalanges
      • Proximal
      • Middle
      • Distal
      • Pollex

 

 

 


Lab Activity 3: Radiology-Bones of the Upper Extremity

The most common way that you will see bones in the clinical setting is through radiology. Therefore, you need to understand what normal bony anatomy looks like in radiological images. In this activity, you will use radiology to identify landmarks on the bones of the upper extremity. You will primarily examine x-ray images, but there will be a few MR images as well.

There will be a skeleton near the computers. Compare the landmarks on the skeleton to the radiological images along the way. This will help you to make sense of what you see in the images. You can also use an atlas to compare the bones with the radiology.

License

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Human Anatomy Lab Manual by Julie Stamm, PhD, LAT, ATC and Patrick Hills-Meyer, EdD, LAT, ATC, CSCS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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