Unit 1: Introduction

1.1 Abbreviations

You may see the following abbreviations used in this text. Their meanings are as follows:

adj.  adjective
C.A. Central America
coll.  colloquial
def. art.  definite article
dem. adj. demonstrative adjective
d.o. direct object
esp.  especially
f.  feminine
fam.  familiar (informal)
fig. figurative
form.  formal
gram.  grammar term
ind. art.  indefinite article
inf.  infinitive
i.o. indirect object
lang.  language
lit.. literary, literature
m. masculine
neut.  neuter
n.  noun
pl. plural
p.p. past participle
poss. adj. possessive adjective
prep.  preposition
prep. obj. pron.  prepositional object pronoun
pron. pronoun
refl. pron. reflexive pronoun
s.  singular
L.A.  Latin America
Sp.  Spain
sub. pron.  subject pronoun
v. verb


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