Unit 16: Translation considerations (part 5)
Compound (or perfect) participles are composed of the present participle of the auxiliary verb haber + past participle. Note that the object pronoun is attached to the form of haber.
|habiendo cantado||having sung|
|habiéndolo dicho||having said it|
Compound (or perfect) infinitives are composed of the infinitive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle:
|haber puesto||having put|
|haber marchado||having left|
The use of the compound past participle corresponds well to English:
|Habiendo terminado el examen, sintió gran alivio.||Having finished the exam, he/she felt great relief.|
|Habiéndolo rechazado, me puse a pensarlo otra vez.||Having rejected it, I began to think it over again.|
In context, the compound infinitive is most often seen after a preposition or, occasionally, after a conjugated verb. Again, both uses function as in English.
|Se fue sin habernos explicado nada.||He left without having explained anything to us.|
|Nos mudamos después de habernos graduado.||We moved away after having graduated.|
|Creo haberlo comprendido.||I believe I have understood it.|
The past participle also functions as an adjective in what are called “absolute” constructions. Note the various translation possibilities in English.
|Concluida la reunión, todos se levantaron.||When the meeting was over (concluded), everyone got up.|
|Terminada la guerra, gozaron de paz de nuevo.||Once the war ended, they enjoyed peace again.|
|Hechas las conclusiones, las escribieron en su reportaje.||The conclusions having been made, they wrote them into their report.|