Unit 6: Pronouns (Part 1), imperfect tense, adverbs
6.1 Verbs Used Reflexively and Reflexive Pronouns
Verbs used reflexively are accompanied by an object pronoun that refers back to the subject. As you will see, this pronoun is sometimes routinely used in English, other times optional and, yet others, untranslatable. Examples of two verbs (with subject pronouns) used reflexively follow:
VESTIRSE (I)– TO GET DRESSED (TO DRESS ONESELF)
|1st||me visto (I get dressed)||nos vestimos (we get dressed)|
|2nd||te vistes (you get dressed)||os vestís (you all get dressed)|
|3rd||se viste (he/she/you gets dressed)||se visten (they/you get dressed)|
LEVANTARSE– TO GET UP
|1st||me levanto (I get up)||nos levantamos (we get up)|
|2nd||te levantas (you get up)||os levantáis (you all get up)|
|3rd||se levanta (he/she/you gets up)||se levantan (they/you get up)|
When reading or translating, you will have the choice of omitting or including the reflexive pronoun as appropriate, as well as some cases where two translations are possible.
|Yo me levanto temprano.||I get (myself) up early.|
|El niño se lastima cuando se cae.||The child gets hurt (hurts himself) when he falls down.|
If a conjugated verb + infinitive construction is present, the reflexive pronoun may precede the conjugated verb or be attached to the infinitive:
|Me voy a bañar ahora.
Voy a bañarme ahora.
|I’m going to take a bath now.|
It is somewhat more common in dialogue to see the object pronoun before the conjugated verb. In Latin American Spanish, you are more likely to see the pronoun attached to the infinitive in written Spanish.
Some verbs are used reflexively and the pronoun is never translated. As you see below (as well as above, with vestirse and levantarse), when listed in the infinitive form, these verbs have the third person singular reflexive pronoun attached to the infinitive. Some such verbs with untranslatable reflexive pronouns are:
|atreverse (a)||to dare (to)|
|arrepentirse (ie)||to repent|
|jactarse (de)||to brag, to boast (about, of)|
|quejarse (de)||to complain (about, of)|
¡Ojo! When putting on, taking off or doing something else to one’s own clothing, in Spanish the definite article replaces the possessive pronoun before the article of clothing, as the reflexive pronoun indicates to whom the action is being done and the possessive pronoun is considered redundant. Note the following translations:
|Me pongo los pantalones.||I put on my pants. (Not “the pants.”)|
|Nos quitamos los zapatos al entrar en casa.||We take off our shoes upon entering the house. (Not “the shoes.”)|
The possessive pronoun is used only when the speaker is doing something to someone else’s clothing, which translates literally from English and poses no comprehension problem: Me pongo tu chaqueta, ¿está bien? (“I’m putting on your jacket, OK?”)