The nervous system, and the endocrine (hormonal) system, are unique in their ability to control behavior through transmitting and processing information. In this module, we consider basic mechanisms of information transmission that constitute the foundations of modern neuroscience.
After completing this module, you will be able to:
- Differentiate between the central and peripheral nervous systems.
- Describe the major structures of the central and peripheral nervous system and outline their functions.
- Define the major parts of a nerve cell and explain their functions.
- Describe the types and functions of glial cells.
- Discuss and summarize mechanisms of transduction of sensory stimuli into neuronal signals.
- Explain how the resting potential of a neuron depends on unequal distributions of ions across the neuronal membrane.
- Explain the process of action potential generation and conduction.
- Differentiate between and compare and contrast graded potentials versus action potentials as means of information transmission.
- Explain the role of myelin in the nervous system and the effect of demyelination on impulse transmission.
- Explain mechanisms by which information is transmitted from one neuron to another.
- Explain the process of synaptic transmission.
- Apply neuronal signaling to how neuronal circuits function in generating simple behaviors.