Sura ya kumi [10]

66 Matumizi ya Lugha

Sarufi: Kirejeshi Kisicho Tensi

The tenseless relative construction refers to actions taking place in the general or ‘universal’ present, i.e. the present expressed by the tenses -a- and hu-. It is often used in proverbs.

kisiwa kijulikanacho
known island/island that’s known (3)
mtu awezaye kuendesha shule vizuri (80)
someone able to (who can) run a school well
kazi wafanyazo
activities (which) they do (57)
mwezi ujao
month which is coming/next month
swali lifuatalo
the following question
kisiwa kisichojulikana
unknown island/island which isn’t known
mtu asiyeweza …
someone unable/who can’t…
kazi wasizofanya
activities (which) they don’t do
mwezi usiokuja
month which isn’t coming
swali lisilofuata
the question which doesn’t follow

 

Methali:

Ajuaye ni Mungu. 
The one who knows is God. (Only God has true knowledge.) 

Mtoto umleavyo ndiyo akuavyo. 
How you raise a child, that’s how s/he’ll grow.

 

Zoezi la kwanza. BADILISHA TENSI.

Tafsiri sentensi zifuatazo. Badilisha tensi na kutumia sarufi mpya, yaani Virejeshi Visivyo Tensi.

1          Mtu anayesoma madarasa mengi ni msomi.
2          Simba anayejulikana si mkali.
3          Lugha zinazofundishwa kwa kawaida ni Kixhosa na Kikikuyu.
4          Watu wanaoandika riwaya ni waandishi.
5          Dini inayotawala Unguja ni Islam.
6          Juma linalokuja litakuwa refu.
7          Wiki inayokuja haitakuwa rahisi.

Zoezi la pili. TAFSIRI METHALI.

1          Kila apigaye (hodi) mlango hupata majibu.
2          Yote yang’aayo usidhani ni dhahabu. (ng’aa=shine, glitter)
3          Kikulacho ki nguoni mwako. (ki=kimo)
4          Asiyeuliza hanalo ajifunzalo.
5          Amnyimaye punda adesi, kampunguzia mashuzi. (nyima=deny, adesi
9/10=lentil, shuzi 5/6=fart)
6          Aisifuye mvua, imemnyea. (sifu = praise, nya = excrete; rain)

Zoezi la tatu. MAELEZO YA METHALI.

Andika insha inayoeleza maana ya methali moja. Utapata methali nyingi kwenye mtandao:
http://www.glcom.com/hassan/kanga.html
.
http://web.ionsys.com/~mourad/methali.htm
Kanga Gallery
http://www.swahilionline.com/language/proverbs/provrbs.htm

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Matumizi ya Lugha by Magdalena Hauner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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