Sura ya nane [8]

59 Matumizi ya Lugha

SARUFI: MNYAMBULIKO WA KUFANYANA
                 MNYAMBULIKO WA KUFANYUA

The Reciprocal Form

The Reciprocal form (Mnyambuliko wa Kufanyana) expresses interaction, and is marked by – an –.
E.g.
             penda, love                                pendana, love each other/one another
busu, kiss                                   busiana, kiss (each other)
            samehe, forgive                          sameheana, forgive each other
            kubali, agree                              kubaliana, agree (with each other)
            pa, give                                      peana, give each other

Examples:
Walipomaliza kusalimiana Zakaria alitikisa kichwa.

When they had greeted each other Zakaria shook his head.
–> salimu, greet
Walitazamana machoni.

They looked into each other’s eyes.
–> tazama, look

Kumbuka:
Tulionana naye. 1. We saw each other/met with him/her. (2 people involved)
2. We saw/met with him/her.(3 or more people involved)

Zoezi 1: Tunga sentensi ukitumia vitenzi vifuatavyo katika kauli ya kufanyana/kutendana. Construct sentences using the following verbs in the reciprocal.

  1. Tuma
  2. Kimbiza
  3. Uma
  4. Letea
  5. Nunua

Reversives/kufanyua

The reversive (also called inversive) or kauli ya kufanyua is used to suggest the opposite or reverse of the root verb. Reversives/inversives are opposites/antonyms of the reversed verbs.

For example: Fungua mlango (open the door) is the reversive of Funga mlango (close the door). Fungua is the opposite of funga.

Other examples: vaa/vua (dress/undress), kunja/kunjua (fold/unfold), kwama/kwamua (get stuck/get unstuck), funika/funua (cover/uncover), komea/komoa (latch/unlatch, bolt/unbolt), choma/chomoa (pierce with knife, arrow, spear, etc./pull out knife/arrow/spear, etc).

From the examples above, you see that if the verb root has ‘e’ or ‘o’, ‘o’ is used as the suffix ( see komea/komoa and choma/chomoa), while the rest take ‘u’ as the suffix.

Zoezi 1: State the reversive of the following verbs.

  1. Anga
  2. Umba
  3. Kosa
  4. Tega
  5. Pakia

Zoezi 2: Fill in the blanks with the correct simple form of the inversive used in the sentence.

  1. Nilitoa pesa ambazo mama alikuwa ame_____ kwenye bahasha.
  2. Baba ali____ shimo hilo lakini mbwa wetu alilizibua.
  3. Fumbo m____ mjinga, mwerevu atalifumbua.
  4. Uzi huu uli____, dada akachukua muda mrefu kuutatua.
  5. Wakati wa asubuhi sisi hu______ nguo na kuzianua jioni.

 

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