Sura ya tano [5]

34 Matumizi ya Lugha

Sarufi: Tensi za Maneno Mawili

Two-word tenses, also known as Complex or Compound Tenses, offer a finer distinction of time and aspect (completion of action, continuation, etc.), than one-word tenses can. E.g.

nitasoma
I’ll read/ I’ll be reading
nitakuwa nikisoma
I’ll be reading
mvua ilinyesha
it rained/ it was raining
mvua ilikuwa ikinyesha
it was raining

There are many combinations of tense markers used in the first and second verb. The following exemplify the most frequently used ones.

Affirmative

TENSE + KI/NA (continuous action)

          nitakuwa nikila  
nimekuwa nikila
nilikuwa nikila
(mimi) huwa nikila

I’ll be eating
I have been eating
I was eating
I usually eat

TENSE ME (completed action)

          nitakuwa nimekula
nilikuwa nimekula
(mimi) huwa nimekula
I’ll have eaten
I had eaten
I usually (will/would) have eaten

Negative

TENSE KI/NA (continuous action)

          nitakuwa sili
nimekuwa sili
nilikuwa sili
(mimi) huwa sili

I won’t be eating
I haven’t been eating
I wasn’t eating
I don’t usually eat

TENSE ME (completed action)

          nitakuwa sija(ku)la
nilikuwa sija(ku)la
(mimi) huwa sija(ku)la
I won’t have eaten
I hadn’t eaten
I usually (won’t/wouldn’t) have eaten

Another way to negate, sitakuwa nikila, I WON’T be eating, etc., which negates the first verb, stresses the negation more than the first way does. It would be used in contexts like the following:

          Mariamu: Saa sita utakuwa umemaliza?
‘Will you be done/finished at twelve?’
          Rosa: Hapana. Saa hizo sitakuwa (nimemaliza).
‘No. At that time I won’t.’
          Hakimu: Saa sita ulikuwa ukila?
‘At twelve o’clock – were you eating?’
          Mshtakiwa: Sikuwa (nikila). Mheshimiwa.
‘I wasn’t, Your Honor.’

Zoezi la kwanza. Tafsiri sentensi zifuatazo.
1           Sperantia alikuwa analia.
2           Walikuwa wakimaliza.
3           Maembe yalikuwa yakioza.
4           Zakaria alikuwa amekonda.
5           Alikuwa bado akikumbuka maneno ya mama yake.
6           Thereza alikuwa bado hajaelewa.

Zoezi la pili. a) Sikiliza sentensi. b) Andika sentensi. c) Tafsiri. 

Zoezi la tatu. Tafsiri kwa Kiswahili.
1           the man walked/the man was walking
2           they will eat/they will be eating
3           we said/we were saying
4           when it rained/when it was raining
5           people told her/people were telling her
6           the child was baptized/the child had been baptized

Zoezi la nne. Soma, andika, tafsiri mifano.
Andika na tafsiri mifano 5 ya tensi za maneno mawili uliyosoma katika maandishi yo yote ya Kiswahili. (Mifano mingi inapatikana katika Rosa Mistika.)

Zoezi la tano. Kanusha.
Angalia picha zinazopatikana katika ukurasa wetu wa ukurasa wetu wa stempu. Andika sentensi 6-8 juu ya stempu mbalimbali ukitumia tensi mbalimbali za maneno mawili (kanusha).
K.m. stempu moja ya NDEGE inamwonyesha tumbusi (tai mzoga). Unaweza kuandika:

Tumbusi hakuwa akila. The vulture wasn’t eating.

Zoezi la sita. Eleza kwa Kiswahili maana za maneno yafuatayo.
1           batiza
2           lewa
3           mganga
4           mwenye bidii
5           pombe ya kienyeji
6           pongezi
7           punguza bei
8           rafiki wa kiume
9           tukana
10         vigelegele

Zoezi la saba. INSHA
Andika insha juu ya
A. Mada moja inayotoka sura hii, au
B. Mada kutoka sura hii, lakini inayohusika na maisha yako. TUMIA TENSI MBALIMBALI ZA MANENO MAWILI.

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Mazoezi ya Rosa Mistika by Magdalena Hauner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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