Sura ya kumi na mbili [12]

78 Matumizi ya Lugha

Sarufi: Kudogowesha na Kukubwisha

KUDOGOWESHA

Nouns may take on a diminutive meaning by adding the prefixes ki-/vi– and ka-/tu- to the noun stem. The second pair suggests a greater degree of diminution. The tu– plural is rarely used. The rules for forming the diminutives follow the division of noun stems into:

consonant stems (polysyllabic) m-toto
vowel stems (polysyllabic) ny-umba
monosyllabic stems m-bwa
ki-stems ki-tabu
ch-stems ch-umba
Class 14 u-baridi

Examples:

1 m-toto ki-toto ka-toto
2 ny-umba ki-j-umba ka-j-umba
3 m-bwa ki-ji-bwa ka-ji-bwa
4 ki-tabu ki-ji-tabu ka-ji-tabu
5 ch-umba ki-ch-umba ka-ch-umba
6 u-baridi ki-u-baridi ka-u-baridi

 

Usages exist outside these categories, e.g. ki-m-radi, ‘little/negligible/silly little project’.

Translation depends on context, as the diminutive may express a small size or endearment, or both, or may be used to belittle.

Zoezi la kwanza. TAFSIRI

1 kijia
2 vijiji
3 kijito
4 kijiko
5 kilima
6 vijoka
7 kabarua
8 kasichana
9 kadege
10 kawimbo
11 kipenzi

 

KUKUBWISHA

Augmentatives convey the meaning of large size or derogation and disrespect. They are formed by adding the prefix ji-/ma– to the noun stem. Similar rules apply as for diminutives. Note the nouns that originally belong to Classes 5/6, i.e. those whose secondary use is augmentation.

Examples:

1 m-toto ji-toto/ma-toto
2 ny-umba j-umba/ma-j-umba
3 m-bwa ji-bwa/ma-ji-bwa
4 n-goma goma/ma-goma
5 ki-tabu tabu/ma-tabu OR ji-tabu/ma-ji-tabu
6 jambazi ji-jambazi/ma-ji-jambazi

Zoezi la kwanza. TAFSIRI
1         jiji
2         jitu
3         jike: ng’ombe jike
4         majoka
5         buzi
6         a huge bird
7         big cats
8         (Thereza na Rosa wanazungumza)
“Sijui mavulana mengine yakoje! Kuna mvulana mmoja
nimekwishamjibu vikali kwamba simtaki. […] Lakini yeye
anajibu: ‘Aksante sana kwa barua yako: hiyo ni alama
ya mapenzi.’ (34) 
9         (Thereza na Rosa wanaendelea)
“Wanasema sijui ni jitu la wapi – lina miguu mirefu kama mbuni!” (34).

Zoezi la pili. MCHEZO
Tunga mchezo mfupi pamoja na mwanafunzi mwenzako mkitumia sarufi hii.

 

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Mazoezi ya Rosa Mistika by Magdalena Hauner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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