Sura ya saba [7]

47 Matumizi ya Lugha

SARUFI: MNYAMBULIKO WA KUFANYIKA

The Stative form of the verb adds the meaning of possibility / potentiality, or passivity. Context determines which meaning applies.

 fanya, do                  fanyika, be done; be doable, possible to do
 soma, read                someka, be read; be readable, possible to read
nywa, drink               nyweka, be drunk; be drinkable, possible to drink
nunua, buy                nunulika, be bought; be possible to buy

NOTE that an -l- is often inserted between the two final vowels. However: toa, put out  –> toka, get out, come out, ondoa, take away –> ondoka, go away.
 sahau, forget             sahaulika, be forgotten; be forgettable, possible to forget

Some verbs are most frequently used with the possibility/potentiality meaning:
 pita, pass                   pitika, be passable, possible to pass
 hesabu, count             hesabika, be countable, possible to count

Other verbs tend to be used frequently with the passive meaning:
 hitaji, to need               hitajika, be needed
 taka, want                    takika, be wanted
 haribu, destroy, ruin     haribika, be destroyed; ruined

EXAMPLES:

Kazi nyingi inafanyika hapa ofisini.   A lot of work gets done in this office.
Kazi hii itafanyika kwa urahisi.          This work/job can be done easily.
Kazi hii haifanyiki !                             This work/job is impossible (to do)!

Je, njia hii inapitika?                           Is this road passable? 
Nyota hazihesabiki.
                              Stars can’t be counted/are uncountable.

Watu wanne watahitajika .                      Four people will be needed. 
Insha tano zinatakika katika darasa hii.
  Five essays are required in this class.

Stative: Kikombe kilivunjika.               The cup broke/got broken/was broken.
             Maisha yangu yameharibika .   My life is ruined.
No agent is being implied in this type of passive, called the Stative.

The following is a Passive. An agent is usually implied:
Passive:
 Kikombe kilivunjwa na Issa.  The cup was broken by Issa. 
              Maisha yangu yameharibiwa na Maria. My life was ruined by Maria.

The following verbs exist with the Reciprocal extension following the Causative one: 
              jua, know                              julikana, be known
 ona, see                                 onekana, appear, seem
 pata, get                                patikana, be available
 weza, be able to                     wezekana, be possible

MAZOEZI
Zoezi la kwanza
. TAFSIRI. ANDIKA MIZIZI YA VITENZI.
1          Kweli bwana, inawezekana. (Uk. 29, toleo la 1988)
2          Rosa alikwenda kununua vitu vilivyokuwa vikihitajika. (14)
3          Nywele nyeupe – ingawa hazikuwa nyingi – ziliweza kuonekana. (40)
4          Deogratias alijulikana. (40)
5          Kesho yake aliondoka. (42)
6          Walionekana kama malaika waliotumwa kushuhudia ukatili uliokuwa
 ukitendeka. (8)

Zoezi la pili. KUSEMA. Fuata mfano. Tafsiri sentensi zako. 
*           kitabu
–>        hakisahauliki
[* book —> it’s unforgettable]

  1. kisiwa   
  2. mapenzi   
  3. wanafunzi   
  4. mahali   
  5. wikendi ile   
  6. busu   
  7. mtihani   

Zoezi la tatu. Chagua majina kutoka katika picha hizi.

1. Arusi ya Kiislamu, Unguja. 2. Korti Kuu, Unguja. 3. Kutwanga na kinu.

Tunga sentensi kama katika Zoezi la pili.

Zoezi la nne. TAFSIRI KWA KISWAHILI. Kila sentensi ina kitenzi cha Kufanyika.
1          *#@*!! This door won’t shut! (funga)
2          This paragraph was easy to do. (fanya kwa urahsi)
3          These shoes are too small, they can’t be worn. (vaa)
4          New medicines will be needed. (hitaji)
5          This chapter reads really well. (soma vizuri)
6          It’s impossible to breathe! (pumua)

Zoezi la tano. KUSEMA. Mazungumzo baina ya mfanyakazi na bosi mbaya.
Baada ya zoezi hili fupi, zoezi linaweza kufanyika mazungumzo marefu kidogo.
*             Naomba nimalize barua.
–>          Barua hii haimaliziki.

1          Nimeambiwa nisafishe madirisha.
2          Umeniita nihesabu mafaili.
3          Nimetumwa nifue nguo.
4          Afadhali nirudishe vitabu maktabani.
5          Ulitaka nieleze maana ya kitabu hiki.
6          Je, nichome vitu hivi?
7          Nikate mikate?
8          Sikujibu swali lako.
9          Karibu unywe chai.
10        Tafadhali, nisamehe kosa langu.
11        Nilitaka tu kukupendeza.

***      Wanafunzi wacheze michezo hii mifupimifupi.

Zoezi la sita. ANDIKA.
Andika mifano yote ya sarufi hii utakayopata katika ukurasa mmoja wa mtandao

 http://www.ippmedia.com      (Gazeti la Kiingereza na Kiswahili la Tanzania)
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/swahili/             (Redio)
 http://www.dwelle.de/kiswahili/welcome.html

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