M12Q5: Functional groups: Suffixes/prefixes, Isomers, Intermolecular Forces

Learning Objectives

| Key Concepts and Summary | Glossary | End of Section Exercises |

functional group is a specific set of atoms that has characteristic properties. Functional groups are extremely useful in determining the behavior and physical properties of a given molecule. There are too many functional groups to cover in this course, so in this section, we will explore just a few of the most prevalent and important ones.

Alcohols and Ethers

Incorporation of just one oxygen atom into an organic molecule can take the form of several different functional groups. When the oxygen atom is attached by single bonds, the molecule is either an alcohol or ether. Alcohols and ethers can be structural isomers of each other.

Alcohols

Alcohols are derivatives of hydrocarbons in which an –OH group has replaced a hydrogen atom. Although all alcohols have one or more hydroxyl (–OH) functional groups, they do not behave like bases such as NaOH and KOH. NaOH and KOH are ionic compounds that contain OH ions. Alcohols are covalent molecules; the –OH group in an alcohol molecule is attached to a carbon atom by a covalent bond.

The name of an alcohol comes from the hydrocarbon from which it was derived. The final -e in the name of the hydrocarbon is replaced by -ol, and the carbon atom to which the –OH group is bonded is indicated by a number placed before the name.[1]

Example 1

Naming Alcohols
Consider the following example. How should it be named?

A molecular structure of a hydrocarbon chain with a length of five C atoms is shown. The first C atom (from left to right) is bonded to three H atoms. The second C atom is bonded on one H atom and an O atom which is also bonded to an H atom. The O atom has two sets of electron dots. The third C atom is bonded to two H atoms. The fourth C atom is bonded to two H atoms. The fifth C atom is bonded to three H atoms. All bonds shown are single.

Solution
The carbon chain contains five carbon atoms. If the hydroxyl group was not present, we would have named this molecule pentane. To address the fact that the hydroxyl group is present, we change the ending of the name to -ol. In this case, since the –OH is attached to carbon 2 in the chain, we would name this molecule 2-pentanol.

Check Your Learning
Name the following molecule:

The structure shown has a C H subscript 3 group bonded up and to the right to a C atom. The C atom is bonded down and to the right to a C H subscript 2 group. The C H subscript 2 group is bonded up and to the right to a C H subscript 2 group. The C H subscript 2 group is bonded down and to the right to a C H subscript 3 group. The second C atom (from left to right) is bonded to a C H subscript 3 group and an O H group.

Answer:

2-methyl-2-pentanol

In the structures below:

This figure has three structures. To the left there is a central carbon with single bonds to hydrogen up and down, a single bond to R to the left and a single bond to OH to the right. Underneath the structure is "Primary (one degree) Alcohol". In the middle, there is a central carbon with a single bond to hydrogen up, a single bond to R to the left, a single bond to R' down, and a single bond to OH to the right. Underneath the structure is "Secondary (two degree) Alcohol". To the right there is a central carbon with single bonds R" up, R left, and R' down, and a single bond to OH to the right. Underneath the structure is "Tertiary (three degree) Alcohol".

The first structure is a primary (1º) alcohol since the carbon with the alcohol attached (labeled in red) is attached to one other carbon, designated by an “R” group (i.e. methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc). The second structure is a secondary (2º) alcohol, since the red carbon is attached to two other carbons, designated by “R” and ” R’ “. These “R” groups could be the same or different. The third structure is a tertiary (3º) alcohol, where the red carbon is attached to three other carbons. There are some differences between the reactivity of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols and this material is covered extensively in Chem 343 and 345.

Ethers

Ethers are compounds that contain the functional group C–O–C, where both C atoms are sp3 hybridized. In the general formula for ethers, R—O—R, the hydrocarbon groups (R) may be the same or different. Ethers do not have a designated suffix like the other types of molecules we have named so far. For naming ethers, the two branches connected to the oxygen atom are named separately (and alphabetically), followed by “ether.” The name for the compound shown below is ethylmethyl ether:

A molecular structure is shown with a red C H subscript 3 group bonded up and to the right to a red O atom. The O atom is bonded down and to the right to a C H subscript 2 group. The C H subscript 2 group is bonded up and to the right to a C H subscript 3 group.

Example 2

Naming Ethers
Provide the name for the ether shown here:

A molecular structure shows a C H subscript 3 group bonded down and to the right to a C H subscript 2 group. The C H subscript 2 group is bonded up and to the right to an O atom. The O atom is bonded down and to the right to a C H subscript 2 group. The C H subscript 2 group is bonded up and to the right to a C H subscript 3 group.

Solution
The groups attached to the oxygen atom are both ethyl groups, so the common name would be diethyl ether.

Check Your Learning
Provide the name for the ether shown:

A molecular structure shows a C H subscript 3 group bonded up and to the right to an O atom. The O atom is bonded down and to the right to a C H group. The C H group is bonded up and to the right to a C H subscript 3 group. The C H group is also bonded down and to the right to another C H subscript 3 group.

Answer:

isopropylmethyl ether

Aldehydes and Ketones

Both aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group, a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond. The names for aldehyde and ketone compounds are derived using similar nomenclature rules as for alkanes and alcohols, and include the class-identifying suffixes -al and -one, respectively:

A C atom is shown with dashes appearing to the left and right. An O atom is double bonded above the C atom.

In an aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. In a ketone, the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms:

Five structures are shown. The first is a C atom with an R group bonded to the left and an H atom to the right. An O atom is double bonded above the C atom. This structure is labeled, “Functional group of an aldehyde.” The second structure shows a C atom with R groups bonded to the left and right. An O atom is double bonded above the C atom. This structure is labeled, “Functional group of a ketone.” The third structure looks exactly like the functional group of a ketone. The fourth structure is labeled C H subscript 3 C H O. It is also labeled, “An aldehyde,” and “ethanal (acetaldehyde).” This structure has a C atom to which 3 H atoms are bonded above, below, and to the left. In red to the right of this C atom, a C atom is attached which has an O atom double bonded above and an H atom bonded to the right. The O atom as two sets of electron dots. The fifth structure is labeled C H subscript 3 C O C H subscript 2 C H subscript 3. It is also labeled, “A ketone,” and “butanone.” This structure has a C atom to which 3 H atoms are bonded above, below, and to the left. To the right of this in red is a C atom to which an O atom is double bonded above. The O atom has two sets of electron dots. Attached to the right of this red C atom in black is a two carbon atom chain with H atoms attached above, below, and to the right.
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In a condensed formula, an aldehyde group is represented as –CHO; a ketone is represented as –C(O)– or –CO–. Aldehydes and ketones can be structural isomers of each other.

In both aldehydes and ketones, the geometry around the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is trigonal planar; the carbon atom exhibits sp2 hybridization. Two of the sp2 orbitals on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group are used to form σ bonds to the other carbon or hydrogen atoms in a molecule. The remaining sp2 hybrid orbital forms a σ bond to the oxygen atom. The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group overlaps a p orbital on the oxygen atom to form the π bond in the double bond.

Like the C=O bond in carbon dioxide, the C=O bond of a carbonyl group is polar (recall that oxygen is significantly more electronegative than carbon, and the shared electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom and away from the carbon atom) (Figure 1).

This structure shows a central C atom to which an O atom is double bonded above. To the lower left, R superscript 1 is bonded and to the lower right, R superscript 2 is bonded. A Greek lowercase delta superscript plus appears to the left of the C and just above the bond with R superscript 1. Similarly, a Greek lowercase delta superscript negative sign appears to the left of the O atom. An arc is drawn from the double bond that links the C atom and the O atom to the bond that links the C atom to the R superscript 2 group. This arc is labeled approximately 120 degrees.
Figure 1. The carbonyl group is polar, and the geometry of the bonds around the central carbon is trigonal planar.

Carboxylic Acids and Esters

The odor of vinegar is caused by the presence of acetic acid, a carboxylic acid, in the vinegar. The odor of ripe bananas and many other fruits is due to the presence of esters, compounds that can be prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol (covered in the next chapter). Some common esters and their odors are in Figure 2, for your reference.

There are nine structures represented in this figure. The first is labeled, “raspberry,” and, “iso-butyl formate.” It shows an H atom with a line going up and to the right which then goes down and to the right. It goes up and to the right again and down and to the right and up and to the right. At the first peak is a double bond to an O atom. At the first trough is an O atom. At the second trough, there is a line going straight down. The second is labeled, “apple,” and, “butyl acetate.” There is a line that goes up and to the right, down and to the right, up and to the right, and down and to the right. At the second peak is a double bond to an O atom. At the end, on the right is O C H subscript 3. The third is labeled, “pineapple,” and, “ethyl butyrate.” It is a line that goes up and to the right, down and to the right, up and to the right, down and to the right, up and to the right, and down and to the right. At the second peak is a double bond to an O atom and at the second trough is an O atom. The fourth is labeled, “rum,” and “propyl isobutyrate.” It shows a line that goes down and to the right, up and to the right, down and to the right, up and to the right, down and to the right and up and to the right. The first complete peak has a double bond to an O atom and the second trough has an O atom. The fifth is labeled, “peach,” and “benzyl acetate.” It shows a line that goes up and to the right, down and to the right, up and to the right and down and to the right. This line connects to a hexagon with a circle inside it. The first peak has a double bond to an O atom and the first trough has an O atom. The sixth is labeled, “orange,” and, “octyl acetate.” It shows a line that goes up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right. The first peak has a double bond to an O atom and the first complete trough has and an O atom. The seventh is labeled, “wintergreen,” and “methyl salicylate.” It shows a hexagon with a circle inside of it. On the right, is a bond down and to the right to an O H group. On the right is a bond to a line that goes up and to the right and down and two the right and up and to the right. At the first peak is a double bond to an O atom, the next trough shows and O atom and at the end of the line is a C H subscript 3 group. The eighth is labeled, “honey,” and “methyl phenylacetate.” It shows a hexagon with a circle inside of it. It shows it connecting to a line on the right that goes down and to the right then up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right. At the first peak that is not part of the hexagon is a double bond to an O atom. At the last trough is an O atom. The ninth is labeled, “strawberry,” and “ethyl methylphenylglycidate.” This shows a hexagon with a circle inside of it. On the right, it connects to a line that goes up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right and up and to the right and down and to the right. At the first peak is a line that extends above and below. Below, it connects to an O atom. At the next trough, the line extends down and to the left to the same O atom. At the next peak is a double bond to an O atom and at the next trough is an O atom.
Figure 2. Esters are responsible for the odors associated with various plants and their fruits.

Both carboxylic acids and esters contain a carbonyl group with a second oxygen atom bonded to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group by a single bond. In a carboxylic acid, the second oxygen atom also bonds to a hydrogen atom. In an ester, the second oxygen atom bonds to another carbon atom. The names for carboxylic acids and esters include prefixes that denote the lengths of the carbon chains in the molecules and suffixes that denote the type of functional group. The suffixes are “-oic acid” is a carboxylic acid containing molecule, and that “-oate” is an ester containing molecule.

Two structures are shown. The first structure is labeled, “ethanoic acid,” and, “acetic acid.” This structure indicates a C atom to which H atoms are bonded above, below and to the left. To the right of this in red is a bonded group comprised of a C atom to which an O atom is double bonded above. To the right of the red C atom, an O atom is bonded which has an H atom bonded to its right. Both O atoms have two sets of electron dots. The second structure is labeled, “methyl ethanoate,” and, “methyl acetate.” This structure indicates a C atom to which H atoms are bonded above, below and to the left. In red, bonded to the right is a C atom with a double bonded O atom above and a single bonded O atom to the right. To the right of this last O atom in black is another C atom to which H atoms are bonded above, below and to the right. Both O atoms have two pairs of electron dots.

The functional groups for an acid and for an ester are shown in red in these formulas.

Carboxylic acids are weak acids (see the chapter on acids and bases), meaning they are not 100% ionized in water. Generally only about 1% of the molecules of a carboxylic acid dissolved in water are ionized at any given time. The remaining molecules are undissociated in solution.

Chemistry in Real Life: Carboxylic Acids

The simplest carboxylic acid is formic acid, HCO2H, known since 1670. Its name comes from the Latin word formicus, which means “ant”; it was first isolated by the distillation of red ants. It is partially responsible for the pain and irritation of ant and wasp stings, and is responsible for a characteristic odor of ants that can be sometimes detected in their nests.

Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, constitutes 3–6% vinegar. Cider vinegar is produced by allowing apple juice to ferment without oxygen present. Yeast cells present in the juice carry out the fermentation reactions. The fermentation reactions change the sugar present in the juice to ethanol, then to acetic acid. Pure acetic acid has a penetrating odor and produces painful burns. It is an excellent solvent for many organic and some inorganic compounds, and it is essential in the production of cellulose acetate, a component of many synthetic fibers such as rayon.

The distinctive and attractive odors and flavors of many flowers, perfumes, and ripe fruits are due to the presence of one or more esters (Figure 3). Among the most important of the natural esters are fats (such as lard, tallow, and butter) and oils (such as linseed, cottonseed, and olive oils), which are esters of the trihydroxyl alcohol glycerine, C3H5(OH)3, with large carboxylic acids, such as palmitic acid, CH3(CH2)14CO2H, stearic acid, CH3(CH2)16CO2H, and oleic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CO2H. Oleic acid is an unsaturated acid; it contains a C=C double bond. Palmitic and stearic acids are saturated acids that contain no double or triple bonds.

This is a photo of a bright red strawberry being held in a human hand.
Figure 3. Over 350 different volatile molecules (many members of the ester family) have been identified in strawberries. (credit: Rebecca Siegel)

Amines

Amines are molecules that contain carbon-nitrogen bonds. The nitrogen atom in an amine has a lone pair of electrons and three bonds to other atoms, either carbon or hydrogen. Naming amines can be somewhat complicated, but the name should always include the class-identifying suffix amine as in the following examples:

Three structures are shown, each with a red, central N atom which has a pair of electron dots indicated in red above the N atoms. The first structure is labeled methyl amine. To the left of the N, a C H subscript 3 group is bonded. H atoms are bonded to the right and bottom of the central N atom. The second structure is labeled dimethyl amine. This structure has C H subscript 3 groups bonded to the left and right of the N atom and a single H atom is bonded below. The third structure is labeled trimethyl amine, which has C H subscript 3 groups bonded to the left, right, and below the central N atom.

In the structures above, the first structure, methyl amine, is a primary amine since the nitrogen is attached to one carbon atom. The second structure, dimethyl amine, is a secondary amine since the nitrogen is attached to two carbon atoms. The third structure, trimethyl amine, is a tertiary amine since the nitrogen is attached to three carbon atoms. The reactivity of primary and secondary amines is different than that of tertiary amines, which will be covered in the next chapter.

Chemistry in Real Life: Addictive Alkaloids

Since ancient times, plants have been used for medicinal purposes. One class of substances, called alkaloids, found in many of these plants has been isolated and found to contain cyclic molecules with an amine functional group. These amines are bases. They can react with H3O+ in a dilute acid to form an ammonium salt, and this property is used to extract them from the plant:

R3N + H3O+ + Cl   →   [R3NH+]Cl + H2O

The name alkaloid means “like an alkali.” Thus, an alkaloid reacts with acid. The free compound can be recovered after extraction by reaction with a base:

[R3NH+]Cl + OH   →   R3N + H2O + Cl

The structures of many naturally occurring alkaloids have profound physiological and psychotropic effects in humans. Examples of these drugs include nicotine, morphine, codeine, and heroin. The plant produces these substances, collectively called secondary plant compounds, as chemical defenses against the numerous pests that attempt to feed on the plant:

Molecular structures of nicotine, morphine, codeine, and heroin are shown. These large structures share some common features, including rings. In the complex structures of morphine, codeine, and heroin, bonds to some O atoms in the structures are indicated with dashed wedges and bonds to some H atoms and N atoms are shown as solid wedges.

In these diagrams, as is common in representing structures of large organic compounds, carbon atoms in the rings and the hydrogen atoms bonded to them have been omitted for clarity. The solid wedges indicate bonds that extend out of the page. The dashed wedges indicate bonds that extend into the page. Notice that small changes to a part of the molecule change the properties of morphine, codeine, and heroin. Morphine, a strong narcotic used to relieve pain, contains two hydroxyl functional groups, located at the bottom of the molecule in this structural formula. Changing one of these hydroxyl groups to a methyl ether group forms codeine, a less potent drug used as a local anesthetic. If both hydroxyl groups are converted to esters of acetic acid, the powerfully addictive drug heroin results (Figure 6).

This is a photo of a red poppy flower.
Figure 6. Poppies can be used in the production of opium, a plant latex that contains morphine from which other opiates, such as heroin, can be synthesized.

Amides (or Carboxamides)

Amides are molecules that contain nitrogen atoms connected to the carbon atom of a carbonyl group. The naming of amides is complex and beyond the scope of this course, but all names include the use of the suffix -amide:

There is one structure with a central carbon atom single bonded to a R/H group to the left, double bonded to an oxygen (which has two lone pairs) and single bonded to a nitrogen to the right. The nitrogen has a lone pair as well as two single bonds to R/H groups.

Amide functional groups exhibit resonance, which affects their physical structure and reactivity. Below, the left resonance structure is drawn with C=O and C-N (as above) but the other resonance structure is drawn with C-O and C=N bonds (center structure). The net result is that the π-bond electrons delocalize between the O-C-N electron regions and give the O, C, and N sp2 hybridization and 120º bond angles (right structure). Even though amides are typically drawn with O=C-N bonding (left structure), it is important to remember the effects of resonance on the geometry of the molecule.

This figure has three similar structures. The left structure has a central carbon atom single bonded to an R group to the left, double bonded to oxygen (which has two lone pairs) and single bonded to a nitrogen. The nitrogen has a lone pair and two single bonds to R. There is a double headed arrow to the middle structure. The middle structure has a central carbon atom single bonded to an R group to the left, single bonded to an oxygen (which has three lone pairs and a negative charge) and double bonded to a nitrogen to the right. The nitrogen has a positive charge and is single bonded to two R groups. There is an equals sign to the right structure, which has a central carbon atom with a single bond to a R group to the left, a 1.5 bond to oxygen and a 1.5 bond to nitrogen, which is single bonded to two R groups.

It is worth noting that some functional groups, like amides, appear to include smaller functional groups, like an amine, so you might be tempted to describe an amide as two functional groups: a carbonyl and an amine. The same idea can be used to think of a carboxylic acid as a ketone and an alcohol. However, this is not the correct approach. In such cases, the largest set of connected atoms that make a up a known functional group should be identified as one functional group, and not multiple. The table here summarizes the structures discussed in this section:

Intermolecular Forces

The functional groups within a molecule determine its physical properties, like melting and boiling points. Certain functional groups, like carboxylic acids and alcohols, have hydrogen-bonding abilities. Other functional groups, like ethers and ketones, are polar. Hydrocarbon functional groups, like alkenes and alkynes, are only able to have LDF.

In general, assuming carbon chains of equal length:

This figure is essentially a number line, showing how different functional groups vary in their intermolecular forces and melting and boiling points. Carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amines have the strongest intermolecular forces and highest melting / boiling points; aldehydes, esters, ketones, amides, ethers are in the middle; alkenes and alkynes have the weakest intermolecular forces and lowest melting / boiling points.

Key Concepts and Summary

This section is extremely important in your understanding of organic chemistry. The physical property of a molecule and the way it reacts with another molecule is based on the functional groups it contains. In previous sections, we looked at functional groups that were only between carbon atoms (alkenes, alkynes), but in this section, we expand to molecules that also contain oxygen and nitrogen. The presence of oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups is important as many of these molecules contain a molecular dipole, have stronger intermolecular forces, and have higher melting/boiling points or lower vapor pressures that similar molecules without those functional groups. A brief description of each functional group is given in the glossary below, while its structure is circled in the figure above.

Glossary

alcohol (-ol)
a molecule where an -OH group has replaced a hydrogen

aldehyde (-al)
a molecule with a terminal carbon single bonded to a hydrogen and double bonded to an oxygen

amide (carboxamide, –amide)
a molecule that contains a central carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to a nitrogen.

amine (- amine)
a molecule that contains a nitrogen with a lone pair and single bonded to three different groups

carbonyl
a carbon-oxygen double bond

carboxylic acid (-oic acid)
a molecule with a terminal carbon single bonded to an -OH group and double bonded to an oxygen

ester (-oate)
a molecule with a central carbon double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to an oxygen.

ether (- ether)
a molecule that contains C-O-C, where both carbons are sp3 hybridized.

functional group
a specific set of atoms that has characteristic properties

ketone (-one)
a molecule with a central carbon double bonded to an oxygen. This carbon is never a terminal carbon and must be single bonded to two other carbons, often written as C-C(O)-C.

Chemistry End of Section Exercises

  1. Several oxygen-containing functional groups are covered in this chapter. How might you recognize them from the name of a molecule?
  2. Which of the following molecules would you expect to have the highest boiling point: 1-butanol, butanal, or 2-butanone? Explain.
  3. D-ribose, often depicted as shown below, is a simple sugar. It is a component of the ribonucleotides that make up RNA. What functional groups are present? The chirality of this molecule is biologically important. How many chiral carbons can be found in this molecule?
  4. Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, plays an important role in the body. It is needed to maintain the health of skin, cartilage, teeth, bone, and blood vessels and to protect your body’s cells from damage. From the structure shown below, determine and circle the oxygen-containing functional groups present in vitamin C.
  5. All of the compounds below have a similar molecular weight, and therefore comparable London dispersion forces. Rank these compounds in order of lowest to highest boiling point. Explain your strategy for answering this question.
    1. 3-hexanone
    2. hexanoic acid
    3. 3-methylhexane
    4. 3-hexanol
  6. Looking at the molecule names in question 5, why is there no number prefix present in hexanoic acid?
  7. Determine whether each of the following alcohols is a primary (1°), secondary (2°) or tertiary alcohol (3°):
  8. The lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen in amine compounds make these compounds basic. Amides, however, are neutral, not basic. How might this be explained?
  9. What functional groups do you find in the following dinucleotide?

Answers to Chemistry End of Section Exercises

  1. The suffix of the name can indicate what type of function group is present. The following table summarizes this information:
    Functional Group Suffix
    Alcohol -ol
    Ether  ether (Note: Adding the word ether is a colloquial way to name ethers. IUPAC naming for ethers is more complicated and beyond this course)
    Aldehyde -al
    Ketone -one
    Carboxylic Acid -oic acid
    Ester -oate
  2. 1-butanol. The intermolecular forces found in 1-butanol (an alcohol) are the strongest, leading to the highest boiling point.
  3. D-ribose has four alcohol groups and one ether group. Four out of the five carbons present are chiral.
  4. This question is asking about boiling points, which is determined by the molecule’s strength of intermolecular forces.
    All of the molecules are affected by London dispersion forces, however, the problem indicates that all of the molecules have similar molar masses so one can assume the London dispersion forces all equivalent in all of the molecules and will not be a determining factor for boiling points.
    After using the suffix name to find the functional group present in each molecule, the intermolecular forces for each molecule can be determined:

    1. 3-hexanone: The -one indicates this molecule is a ketone. Ketone functional groups produce dipole-dipole intermolecular forces.
    2. Hexanoic acid: The -oic acid indicates this molecule is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid functional groups produce hydrogen bonding intermolecular forces. Note that there are two oxygen atoms where hydrogen bonding can take place.
    3. 3-methylhexane: The -ane indicates this is an alkane molecule. Alkanes are only affected by London Dispersion forces.
    4. 3-Hexanol: The -ol ending indicate this molecule is an alcohol. Alcohol functional groups produce hydrogen bonding intermolecular forces. Note that there is only one oxygen atom where hydrogen bonding can take place.

    Based on intermolecular force strength, boiling point order is as follows (actual boiling points are given for verification):
    3-methylhexane (92°C) < 3-hexanone (123°C) < 3-hexanol (135°C) < hexanoic acid (206°C)

  5. Carboxylic acids are terminal functional groups – they will always be on an end of the carbon chain.
  6. (a) 1°; (b) 1°; (c) 3°; (d) 2°
  7. The electron pair in the amide is not free to behave as a base but is involved in a delocalized pi bond with the carbonyl group.
  8. Alcohol (1), amine (1), amide (2), carboxylic acid (1)
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  1. The IUPAC adopted new nomenclature guidelines in 2013 that require this number to be placed as an “infix” rather than a prefix. For example, the new name for 2-propanol would be propan-2-ol. Widespread adoption of this new nomenclature will take some time, and students are encouraged to be familiar with both the old and new naming protocols.

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