Molecular orbitals for molecules with three or more atoms are complicated and hard to draw. Thus, although MOs would convey a more descriptive and accurate picture of electron distribution within a molecule, chemists often rely on simpler diagrams to depict the covalent bonding. It will aid your understanding of chemistry if you can connect these simpler diagrams mentally with the more complete picture given by MOs.
The most commonly used hand-drawn depiction is the Lewis structure: a diagram that represents atomic nuclei and core electrons by chemical symbols and valence electrons as dots or lines. A Lewis structure is built by combining Lewis diagrams of the constituent atoms.
In Lewis structures, a single covalent bond is drawn as a pair of electron dots shared between two adjacent atoms, a bond pair. Valence electrons that are not in a bond are shown as pairs of dots associated with individual atoms, lone pairs. For example:
In the Cl2 molecule, each Cl atom has three lone pairs and the two Cl atoms share one bond pair. Hence, each Cl atom in Cl2 has formed an octet (is surrounded by eight valence electrons).
For simplicity and clarity, a bond pair is typically represented by a line instead of a pair of dots:
The Octet Rule
The octet rule states that atoms of main-group elements tend to gain, lose, or share enough electrons to form an octet (eight valence electrons). Such noble-gas electron configurations with completely filled valence shells are more stable, and therefore should correspond to how the electrons are arranged in a molecule.
The Lewis diagram for an atom can be used to predict the number of bonds the atom will form. For example, a carbon atom has four valence electrons and therefore requires four more electrons to reach an octet:
It is important to keep in mind that it is impossible to exceed an octet for atoms in the second period. This is particularly relevant because you will encounter numerous molecules containing the elements C, N and O.
Finally, because a hydrogen atom needs only two electrons to fill its valence shell, H is an important exception to the octet rule and forms only one bond.
Double and Triple Bonds
Two atoms may need to share more than one pair of electrons to achieve the requisite octet. In other words, the bond order is greater than 1. A double bond consists of two pairs of electrons being shared between two atoms. For example:
A triple bond forms when three pairs of electron are shared between two atoms. For example:
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