Causality – how one event causes another – is one of the more interesting aspects of Malagasy. Often, this requires keeping track of tenses; as a reminder, in general:
- Verbs starting with “m” are in present tense.
- Verbs starting with “n” are in past tense.
- Verbs starting with “h” are in future tense.
Some related words showing cause and effect include:
|dia||so / then|
|ka||so / then|
|rehefa||then, when, soon, soon after|
Watch for these words when reading the following story.
|Androany, nandeha niantsena aho.||Today, I went shopping.||androany – today
mandeha miantsena – to go shopping
nandeha niantsena – to have gone shopping
|Te-hividi broccoli aho, fa tsy nisy tany an-tsena, ka nividy soflera sy laisoa.||I wanted to buy broccoli, but the market did not have any, so I bought cauliflower and cabbage.||fa – but
ka – so / then
soflera – cauliflower
laisoa – cabbage
|Nila akondro ny reniko, ka nividy akondro telo kilao aho ho azy ary roa kilao ho ahy.||My mother needed bananas, so I bought 3 kilos of bananas for her and 2 kilos for me.||mila – to need
nila – needed
reni – mother
reniko – my mother
|Nahatsiaro ho toy ny rajako na gidro aho.||I felt like a monkey or lemur.||
mahatsiaro ho toy – to feel like
rajako – monkey
lemur – gidro
|Nividy akondro aho mba manao mofo akondro.||I bought bananas to make banana bread.||mba – in order to|
|Nafangaroko lafarinina, akondro, siramamy, ary menaka mba hanaovana mofo matsiro io.||I mixed flour, bananas, sugar, and oil to make this tasty bread.||mafangaro – to mix
lafarinina – flour
siramamy – sugar
menaka – oil
|Natory aho avy eo.||After, I took a nap.|
|Natory aho rehefa avy eo.||After, I then took a nap.||rehefa – then, when, soon, soon after|
|Marani-tsaina nyalikako ka nihinana ny mofo raha natory aho.||My clever dog ate the bread while I was asleep.||matory – to sleep
natory – to have slept
|Malahelo aho izao, tsy misakafo ny zanako, ary marary kibo ny alikako satria be loatra sakafony.||Now I am sad, my children do not have dinner, and my dog has a stomachache because she ate too much.||izao – sad
zanako – children
marary – sick
kibo – stomach
alikako – my dog
be loatra – too much.