Sarufi Haraka: Kauli ya Kutendana

This chapter offers a grammar lesson on the reciprocal verb form.

To denote that an action is reciprocated between 2+ people, you must change the verb tense.

  1. Verbs ending in -a: Add an -na at the end.
    • Kuona (to see) becomes kuoana (to see each other)
    • Kutambulisha (to notify) becomes kutambulishana (to notify each other)
    • Kutafuta (to find) becomes kutafutana (to find each other)


Baada ya wiki mbili, walioana sukoni. After two weeks, they saw each other at the market.

Make your own sentences with the last two examples!

2.  Verbs that end in -i take an -ana at the end. Do not drop the -i.

  • Kushiriki (to share) becomes kushirikiana (to share with each other).

3. Verbs that end in -u take a -iana at the end. DROP THE -u.

  • Kusalimu (to greet) becomes kusalimiana (to greet each other).
  • Kufahamu (to know) becomes kufahamiana (to know each other).

4. Verbs which end in double vowels are a bit trickier! If the double vowel is -ua, -oa, -ia, -ea then you  add -lean or -lian before the final vowel.

  • Kununua (to buy) becomes kununuliana (to buy for each other)
  • Kutembea (to walk) becomes kutembeleana (to walk with each other)


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