Fulfulde/Fula/Peul/Pulaar/Fulani

Verb Extensions

Verb extensions, typically placed between a verb’s root and its ending, can alter the meaning of a verb and/or allow it to take an indirect object (typically by replacing prepositions as used in English). The following is a list of common verb extensions in Fulfulde:

-d- 

This extension adds the idea of the preposition “with,” that the verb is done together with another person.

  • haalude – to talk
    • haaldude e – to talk with (e= with)
  • yahude – to go
    • yahdude e – to go with

-inde-

The -inde- verb extension “causes” the action of the verb to occur

  • jaŋngude – to study / learn / read
    • jaŋninde – to teach (to cause to learn)
  • famude – to understand
    • faminde – to explain something to someone

-ir-

This one is tricky to explain, but the meaning is clear in context. This extension adds the idea of the manner in which something is done / doing the action of the verb with an object (rather than a person)

  • winndude – to write
    • winndirde biki – to write with a pencil (biki = pencil)
  • taƳude – to cut
    • taƳirde laɓi – to cut with a knife

-oy-

This extension indicates that physical movement must take place in order for the action to occur; can act as future proche in narrative form (“subject is going to do the verb”)

  • jaŋngude – to study / learn / read
    • jaŋngoyde – to go to study
  • ɲaamude – to eat
    • ɲaamoyde – to go to go eat
  • soodude – to buy
    • soodoyde – to go to buy

-an-

The -an-verb extension indicates that the subject is doing the verb for someone or something

  • gollude – to work
    • gollande- to work for (someone or something)
  • warude – to come
    • warande – to come for something

-t- or -it-

This extension can either reverse/undo the action of the verb or indicate that the action is repeated, depending on context.

  • sokude – to lock
    • soktude – to unlock
  • uddude – to close
    • udditidde – to open
  • warude – to come
    • wartude – to come back / again
  • fuɗɗude – to begin
    • fuɗɗitidde – to begin again

*Note: When the extension is -it- the -ude ending becomes -idde

 

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Resources for Self-Instructional Learners of Less Commonly Taught Languages by University of Wisconsin-Madison Students in African 671 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.