Verb extensions can alter the meaning of a verb and/or allow it to take an indirect object (typically by replacing prepositions as used in English). They are formed by replacing the regular verb endings (-ude and -aade) with a new verb ending or by placing a letter between the verb stem and the ending). The following is a list of common verb extensions in Fulfulde:
This extension adds the idea of the preposition “with,” that the verb is done together with another person.
To use this verb extension, you place the d between the stem and the ending, and then conjugate the verb regularly. For example, haalude (to speak) becomes haaldude e (to speak with, e is added to represent the idea of “with” before the direct object).
|Aissa ana haalda e jannginoowo o.||Aissa is speaking with the teacher.|
|Boubacar yahi e sukaaɓe makko.||Boubacar goes with his children.|
The -inde- verb extension “causes” the action of the verb to occur
- jaŋngude – to study / learn / read
- jaŋninde – to teach (to cause to learn)
- famude – to understand
- faminde – to explain something to someone
This verb extension is used to express the idea of doing a verb with a tool/implement/object, broadly speaking. The -irde ending replaces the -ude ending only (a note on using it with -aade can be found below). For example, winndude (to write) becomes winndirde X (to write with X) and then is conjugated regularly.
|Sidibe ana gollira jalo.||Sidibe is working with a hoe.|
|Fatoumata ana defirta ƴulɓe.||Fatoumata is not cooking with charcoal.|
|Fati yahiri luumo mobile.||Fati went to the market in a car.|
-Aade verbs do not use -irde, but instead use -oraade (though there are relatively few verbs -aade verbs that need this extension).
|Mido jakkoro kosam gallmare.||I measure milk with a (traditional) spoon.|
|Ba seforaaki micro.||Ba does not speak with a microphone.|
This extension indicates that physical movement must take place in order for the action to occur; can act as near future in narrative form (“subject is going to do the verb”). -Oyde replaces the -ude or the -aade ending and then is conjugated normally. For example, jaŋngude (to study) becomes jaŋngoyde (going to go study). -Oyde can also be used to express the idea of habitual actions.
|Keeŋen mo duroyi na’i.||Yesterday he went to herd cows.|
|Mido sokoya bafal.||I am going to go lock the door (implied to be imminent, action has begun).|
|Mido sokoya bafal jamma fuu.||I lock the door every night (habitual).|
|Ummu ana sommoyo.||Ummu is going to buy sauce ingredients (implied to be imminent, action has begun)|
|Altineere fuu, Madina ana yaha luumo somoyaade.||Each Thursday, Madina goes to the market to buy sauce ingredients.|
The -ande verb extension indicates that the subject is doing the verb for someone or something. -Ande replaces the -ude or the -aade verb ending, and then is conjugated normally. For example, defude (to cook) becomes defande (cook for someone).
|Bollo ana gollana Corps de la Paix.||Bollo works for Peace Corps.|
|Mamadou sodanii Samba kadule keeŋen||Mamadou purchased fabric for Samba yesterday.|
|Mido laamndono ma coggu kosam.||I am asking you for the price of milk.|
|Fatoumata suɓonto Ba tuba.||Fatoumata will choose pants for Ba.|
-t- or -it-
This extension can either reverse/undo the action of the verb or indicate that the action is repeated, depending on context.
- sokude – to lock
- soktude – to unlock
- uddude – to close
- udditidde – to open
- warude – to come
- wartude – to come back / again
- fuɗɗude – to begin
- fuɗɗitidde – to begin again
*Note: When the extension is -it- the -ude ending becomes -idde