Verb extensions can alter the meaning of a verb and/or allow it to take an indirect object (typically by replacing prepositions as used in English). They are formed by replacing the regular verb endings (-ude and -aade) with a new verb ending or by placing a letter between the verb stem and the ending). The following is a list of common verb extensions in Fulfulde:
This extension adds the idea of the preposition “with,” that the verb is done together with another person.
To use this verb extension, you place the d between the stem and the ending, and then conjugate the verb regularly. For example, haalude (to speak) becomes haaldude e (to speak with, e is added to represent the idea of “with” before the direct object).
|Aissa ana haalda e jannginoowo o.
|Aissa is speaking with the teacher.
|Boubacar yahi e sukaaɓe makko.
|Boubacar goes with his children.
The -inde- verb extension “causes” the action of the verb to occur
- jaŋngude – to study / learn / read
- jaŋninde – to teach (to cause to learn)
- famude – to understand
- faminde – to explain something to someone
This verb extension is used to express the idea of doing a verb with a tool/implement/object, broadly speaking. The -irde ending replaces the -ude ending only (a note on using it with -aade can be found below). For example, winndude (to write) becomes winndirde X (to write with X) and then is conjugated regularly.
|Sidibe ana gollira jalo.
|Sidibe is working with a hoe.
|Fatoumata ana defirta ƴulɓe.
|Fatoumata is not cooking with charcoal.
|Fati yahiri luumo mobile.
|Fati went to the market in a car.
-Aade verbs do not use -irde, but instead use -oraade (though there are relatively few verbs -aade verbs that need this extension).
|Mido jakkoro kosam gallmare.
|I measure milk with a (traditional) spoon.
|Ba seforaaki micro.
|Ba does not speak with a microphone.
This extension indicates that physical movement must take place in order for the action to occur; can act as near future in narrative form (“subject is going to do the verb”). -Oyde replaces the -ude or the -aade ending and then is conjugated normally. For example, jaŋngude (to study) becomes jaŋngoyde (going to go study). -Oyde can also be used to express the idea of habitual actions.
|Keeŋen mo duroyi na’i.
|Yesterday he went to herd cows.
|Mido sokoya bafal.
|I am going to go lock the door (implied to be imminent, action has begun).
|Mido sokoya bafal jamma fuu.
|I lock the door every night (habitual).
|Ummu ana sommoyo.
|Ummu is going to buy sauce ingredients (implied to be imminent, action has begun)
|Altineere fuu, Madina ana yaha luumo somoyaade.
|Each Thursday, Madina goes to the market to buy sauce ingredients.
The -ande verb extension indicates that the subject is doing the verb for someone or something. -Ande replaces the -ude or the -aade verb ending, and then is conjugated normally. For example, defude (to cook) becomes defande (cook for someone).
|Bollo ana gollana Corps de la Paix.
|Bollo works for Peace Corps.
|Mamadou sodanii Samba kadule keeŋen
|Mamadou purchased fabric for Samba yesterday.
|Mido laamndono ma coggu kosam.
|I am asking you for the price of milk.
|Fatoumata suɓonto Ba tuba.
|Fatoumata will choose pants for Ba.
-t- or -it-
This extension can either reverse/undo the action of the verb or indicate that the action is repeated, depending on context.
- sokude – to lock
- soktude – to unlock
- uddude – to close
- udditidde – to open
- warude – to come
- wartude – to come back / again
- fuɗɗude – to begin
- fuɗɗitidde – to begin again
*Note: When the extension is -it- the -ude ending becomes -idde