Verb Extensions

Verb extensions can alter the meaning of a verb and/or allow it to take an indirect object (typically by replacing prepositions as used in English).  They are formed by replacing the regular verb endings (-ude and -aade) with a new verb ending or by placing a letter between the verb stem and the ending). The following is a list of common verb extensions in Fulfulde:


This extension adds the idea of the preposition “with,” that the verb is done together with another person.

To use this verb extension, you place the d between the stem and the ending, and then conjugate the verb regularly. For example, haalude (to speak) becomes haaldude e (to speak with, e is added to represent the idea of “with” before the direct object).

Fulfulde English
Aissa ana haalda e jannginoowo o. Aissa is speaking with the teacher.
Boubacar yahi e sukaaɓe makko. Boubacar goes with his children.



The -inde- verb extension “causes” the action of the verb to occur

  • jaŋngude – to study / learn / read
    • jaŋninde – to teach (to cause to learn)
  • famude – to understand
    • faminde – to explain something to someone


This verb extension is used to express the idea of doing a verb with a tool/implement/object, broadly speaking.  The -irde ending replaces the -ude ending only (a note on using it with -aade can be found below). For example, winndude (to write) becomes winndirde X (to write with X) and then is conjugated regularly.

Fulfulde English
Sidibe ana gollira jalo. Sidibe is working with a hoe.
Fatoumata ana defirta ƴulɓe. Fatoumata is not cooking with charcoal.
Fati yahiri luumo mobile. Fati went to the market in a car.

-Aade verbs do not use -irde, but instead use -oraade (though there are relatively few verbs -aade verbs that need this extension).

Fulfulde English
Mido jakkoro kosam gallmare. I measure milk with a (traditional) spoon.
Ba seforaaki micro. Ba does not speak with a microphone.


This extension indicates that physical movement must take place in order for the action to occur; can act as near future in narrative form (“subject is going to do the verb”). -Oyde replaces the -ude or the -aade ending and then is conjugated normally. For example, jaŋngude (to study) becomes jaŋngoyde (going to go study). -Oyde can also be used to express the idea of habitual actions.

Fulfulde English
Keeŋen mo duroyi na’i. Yesterday he went to herd cows.
Mido sokoya bafal. I am going to go lock the door (implied to be imminent, action has begun).
Mido sokoya bafal jamma fuu. I lock the door every night (habitual).
Ummu ana sommoyo. Ummu is going to buy sauce ingredients (implied to be imminent, action has begun)
Altineere fuu, Madina ana yaha luumo somoyaade. Each Thursday, Madina goes to the market to buy sauce ingredients.


The -ande verb extension indicates that the subject is doing the verb for someone or something.    -Ande replaces the -ude or the -aade verb ending, and then is conjugated normally. For example, defude (to cook) becomes defande (cook for someone).

Fulfulde English
Bollo ana gollana Corps de la Paix. Bollo works for Peace Corps.
Mamadou sodanii Samba kadule keeŋen Mamadou purchased fabric for Samba yesterday.
Mido laamndono ma coggu kosam. I am asking you for the price of milk.
Fatoumata suɓonto Ba tuba. Fatoumata will choose pants for Ba.

-t- or -it-

This extension can either reverse/undo the action of the verb or indicate that the action is repeated, depending on context.

  • sokude – to lock
    • soktude – to unlock
  • uddude – to close
    • udditidde – to open
  • warude – to come
    • wartude – to come back / again
  • fuɗɗude – to begin
    • fuɗɗitidde – to begin again

*Note: When the extension is -it- the -ude ending becomes -idde



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