Prepositional verbs in Luganda
How to use prepositional verbs
Prepositional verbs show that the action is happening for a specific person or is happening in a specific place. They are used to specify.
To use the prepositional tense to say the action is happening to a person, simply construct the prepositional, with the recipient of the action directly after the verb.
prepositional verb + recipient of action
To use the prepositional to say where the action is happening, construct the prepositional and then use a locative and the place.
prepositional verb + locative + location
How to construct prepositional verbs
Prepositional verbs are created by adding -ira , -era, -iza, or -eza endings to verb stems.
Does the verb end in -sa or -za? If it does, you’ll be using -iza or -eza verb endings.
If the second-to-last vowel in the verb stem is a, i, or u, remove the final -a and the ending changes to -iza.
okuwasa (to marry) ends in -sa, and its second-to-last vowel is a, so this becomes okuwasiza (to be married in a certain place or to a certain person).
Awasiza omwami. (She marries her husband.) or Bawasiza munda e Mukono. (They marry in Mukono.)
If the second to last vowel in the verb stem is e or o, remove the final -a and the ending changes to -isa.
okusomesa (to teach) ends in -sa, and its second-to-last vowel is e, so this becomes okusomeseza (to teach in a certain place or to a certain person).
Amelia asomeseza abayizi. (Amelia teaches students.) or Amelia asomeseza ku Gayaza High School. (Amelia teaches at Gayaza High School.)
Does the verb have any other ending, other than -sa or -za? If it does, you use the -ira or -era endings.
If the second-to-last vowel is a, i, or u, remove the final -a and add the ending -ira.
okufumba (to cook) ends in -ba and its second-to-last vowel is u, so it becomes okufumbira (to cook for or to cook in a certain place).
Nfumbira baganda bange. (I cook for my sisters.) or Nfumbira ku effumbiro. (I cook in the kitchen)
If the second-to-last vowel is e or o, remove the final -a and the ending changes to -era.
okusona (to tie or sew) ends in -na and its second-to-last vowel is o, so it becomes okusonera (to sew for someone or in a certain place).
Asonera mukwano gwe engoye. (He sews clothing for his friend.) Asonera mu katale. (He sews at the market.)
Some verbs actually take on new meanings when in prepositional form.
okulaga (to show) –> okulagira (to direct)
okugenda (to go) –> okugendera (to intend)
okuwulira (to hear) –> okuwuliriza (to listen to)