Sarufi (Grammar) | When and If in Verb Structure
- When: -po-
-Po- is used in verb structure to indicate “when” in terms of time. When -po- is used in the present tense, -na- it also means whenever. The -po- is inserted as an infix between the tense marker (na – li – ta) and the verb stem. For example, “ninaposikia vizuri, inasabibisha ninakula vizuri” (“When I feel good, it is because I eat well.”). When -po- is used in the future tense with -ta- a -ka- is inserted after the -ta.- For instance, “nitakapoenda tutonana” (“When I go, we will see each other.“).
2. If: -ki-
The present conditional tense is formed by inserting -ki- between the subject and verb stem. NO TENSE IS USED WITH -KI-. The verb that follows a conditional tense verb is always in the future tense or imperative/polite form which can imply the future. With this form, monosyllabic verbs lose the ku- at their start.
Watoto wakila ugali, watlala vizuri. If the children eat ugali, they will sleep well.
Nikikimbia, nitachoka jioni. If I run, I will be tired in the evening.
3. The negative -po- and -ki-
Negative sentences with these grammar structures bear -sipo- in the first verb, between the subject and the verb stem. The second verb in this sentence takes the negative -ta- or -na-. NEVER USED WITH PAST TENSE, BECAUSE IT IMPLIES SOMETHING THAT HAS NOT HAPPENED YET.
|Affirmative||Negative||Translation of Negative|
|Anapofanya mazoezi polepole anajifunza vizuri.||Asipofanya mazoezi polepole hatajifunza vizuri.||If she doesn’t do the exercise slowly, she won’t learn well.|
4. Monosyllabic vebs
With -po-, monosyllabic verbs keep the infinitive -ku- in both affirmative and negative sentences.
With -ki- monosyllabic verbs drop the -ku-.