Construction of Verbs in the Conditional Tense:
Present Tense Construction:
TO class verbs
Akilem (to take):
Kalemi (if I take)
Kilemi (if you take)
Kelemi (if he/she/it takes)
Kikilemi (if we take)
Kilemete (if you all take)
Kelemete (if they take)
KI class verbs
Akilip (to pray)
Kelipi (if i pray)
Kilipi (if you pray)
Kilipi (if he/she/it prays)
Kikilipi (if we pray)
Kilipete (if you all pray)
Kilipete (if they pray)
Perfect Tense Construction:
TO class verbs
Kalemit (if I had taken)
Kilemit (if you had taken)
Kelemit (if he/she/it had taken)
Kikilemit (if we had taken)
Kilemito (if you all had taken)
Kelema (if they had taken)
KI class verbs
Kelipit (if I had prayed)
Kilipit (if you had prayed)
Kilip (if he/she/it had prayed)
Kikilipit (if we had prayed)
Kilipito (if you all had prayed)
Kilipa (if they had prayed)
Conditional Sentence Type 1 (“If/Shall”):
- In the conditional clause, the present conditional tense is used. In the consequent clause, the present indicative tense is used.
- “Ani” can be added prior to the verb in the conditional tense for emphasis.
- Ani kimuji inges, emuji ayong dang: If he eats, I’ll eat too.
- Ani kengolik ayong inges, amali ayong inges: If I see her, I’ll greet her.
- Ani keloto ikes, eryamunete papa kec lore: If they go, they’ll find their father at home.
- Ani kilot iyong taun a Jinja, ingoliki angolol a Nile: If you go to the city of Jinja, you’ll see the Nile River.
- Ani kingit iyong, emorete ikes iyong: If you ask, they will tell you.
To negate Type 1 conditional sentences, add “pa” before the verb in the conditional clause, which is conjugated normally.
- Ani pa ketepi akiru, nyelosete ngaberu akicap amana: If it doesn’t rain, the women won’t go to weed the field.
- Ani pa kimori iyong inges, nyeyeni inges: If you don’t tell him, he won’t know.
- Ani pa kasyomi ayong abuk na, nyapedori ayong alosit locukul: If i don’t read this book, I won’t be able to go to school.
Conditional Sentence Type 2 (“If/Would”):
- The verb in the conditional clause may be preceded by “kerai“.
- The verb in the consequent clause may have the endings of the present or perfect tenses, or simploy of the root of the verb.
- Present tense endings in the consequent clause imply that the action would have been done regularly.
- If kerai is placed before the verb in the conditional clause, the verb commonly takes the narrative form of the perfect tense, especially in the case of ayakau (to be).
- Kerai toyakasi iyong ngisilinga, kipedorit angyelar akai ngina kitete: If you had had money, you would have been able to buy a new house.
- Kipedorit iyong alosit lotic kerai kikatakinit akisyom: You would have been able to go to work if you had tried to learn.
- Kayaunit ayong akimyet nakwar na kerai toyai ayong ecupa: I would have brought the oil today if I had had a bottle.
- Kerai alosito iswa taparacu sek, kikibongunit sek lore kosi: If we had gone early in the morning, we would have returned early to our home.
- Kerai toyai ayong akoro, kalosit ayong lore a Nacan, anerai eporei inges akimuj ngina ajokan nooi: If I were hungry, I would have gone to Nacan’s house, because she cooks really good food.
To negate Type 2 conditional sentences, add the prefix “ny-” to the verb in the conditional clause, which may be preceded by kerai or ani kerai.
- Kerai nyikainakit inges ikes akimuj, ketwanara ikes: If he hadn’t given them food, they would have died.
- Kerai nyingarakinit iswa aberu ngina toyai inges edeke, pa kepedor alosit akingolokin edakitar: If we hadn’t helped the sick woman, she wouldn’t have been able to see the doctor.
- Kerai nyitijikit Germany Poland, pa kesyak ejie kiding ngakwap ngun ngaarei: If Germany hadn’t attacked Poland, a war wouldn’t have started between those two countries.